Anton, Magnus and Olof publishes in CIS Iron and Steel Review

Iron Ore Market Review 2018

CIS Iron and Steel Review (2019 Vol.17)

Iron ore prices remained at relatively high levels during 2018. Premia paid for high quality ores increased and are substantial. Global iron ore production is estimated to grow by around 2% in 2018. Sharp cuts in production of un-beneficiated ore have taken place in China during 2018. Demand for iron ore in general and for high grade products in particular has however increased. Future developments in China, both in the steel and iron ore industries, will be crucial to the global iron ore markets in 2019. This review is written in March 2019 and incorporates as much as possible figures and trends for the full year 2018, in some cases this is however not yet possible.

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Mining’s contribution to national economies between 1996 and 2016

Magnus Ericsson and Olof Löf publishes article in Mineral Economics.

In several low- and middle-income countries rich in non-fuel mineral resources, mining makes significant contributions to national economic development as measured by the revised Mining Contribution Index (MCI-Wr). Ten countries among the 20 countries where mining contributes most (highest MCI-Wr score) have moved up one or two steps in the World Bank’s country classification between 1996 and 2016. In particular, African countries have benefitted. Socio-economic development indicators also show signs of progress for African mineral-rich countries. This paper provides an update and expansion of an earlier study within the framework of the United Nations University (UNU) World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) initiative Extractives for Development. Based on the detailed data available for the sector, such as production, export, prices, mineral rents, exploration expenditure and government revenues, an analysis is carried out of the current situation for 2016, and trends in mining’s contribution to economic development for the years 1996–2016. The contribution of minerals and mining to GDP and exports reached a maximum at the peak of the mining boom in 2011. Naturally, the figures for mining’s contribution had declined for most countries by 2016, but importantly the levels were still considerably higher than in 1996. The results of this survey contradict the widespread view that mineral resources create a dependency that might not be conducive to economic and social development. In addition, this paper presents an attempt to use already available socio-economic indicators for African mineral-rich countries to measure socio-economic developments. One preliminary conclusion of this survey is that mining countries perform better than oil-producing countries and non-mineral countries in Africa as measured by these indices of human development and governance.

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Magnus Ericsson publishes article in Euroasian Mining Journal

Internationalisation of mining education and research - a recurring process running through the centuries

International cooperation and mobility are buzzwords of today’s research and innovation clusters all over the world. These are however not new concepts. The understanding that research and innovation can only thrive in an international and open environment has been in place for at least 300 years in Sweden. All interested and knowledgeable scientists and business developers have been welcomed to push the front of knowledge and the industry forward. The international contacts of Swedish mining education, research and innovation prove that with an open mind and a persistent, long term effort results will come.

The roots of mining education and research in Sweden dates back to the 17th century. Initially the focus was on applied research rather than education, but the early efforts also slowly led to important purely scientific results. Swedish metallurgists/chemists have discovered more elements than scientists from any other nation. Over 150 years, from the early 18th century to the end of the 19th century, 20 elements - and among them many industrially important metals — were isolated and described.

The ancient Falu copper mine was the logical choice for location of one of the first technical schools in Sweden: “Falu Bergskola” (Falu Mining School), which was set up in 1822. Its first director was precisely one of the chemical scientists engaged in the discovery of new elements. This Mining school was later merged with other existing institutions offering some technical training into “Tekniska Institutet” (the Technical Insitute). This was in 1876 transformed into a technical high school along German models. The Association of Swedish Iron and Steel industry (Jernkontoret in Swedish) was a key supporter and funder of these developments. The new school was called Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) in translation Royal Institute of Technology. KTH had 5 departments, including a school of mining science.

In 1972 the education of mining engineers was transferred to the newly established Luleå Technical College close to the Arctic Circle. The College was later expanded and in 1997 renamed Luleå University of Technology (LTU). LTU has become one of the leading mining universities in Europe, to a large extent due to the fact that it is situated in the centre of one of Europe’s remaining mining regions. Around 2/3 of all university trained staff employed by Swedish mining has been trained at LTU. But LTU has also had its focus on the mining sector for a long time and in its internal program Mines of the Future it has relentlessly pushed the importance of mining and minerals and demonstrated its ambition to be a leading actor in this area. LTU has been appointed by Swedish government to lead the national education and research in mining. The recent decision by the EU to locate one EIT Raw Materials CLC (Co-location Centre) to Luleå means that the university has been given a similar role also on the EU level. LTU has actively built international links and supported cooperation with other universities within Europe and around the world. The bold and officially stated aim is to become one of the globally leading mining universities.

Eurasian Mining, ISSN 2072-0823, Vol. 2, p. 44-48

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Mineraltillgångar bidrar till utveckling i världen

Article by Magnus Ericsson & Olof Löf in Bergsmannen.

Rika mineralförekomster och en väl utvecklad gruvindustri ger väsentliga bidrag till nationell ekonomisk och social utveckling. Särskilt i utvecklingsländer. Mineralrika länder utvecklas också snabbare än länder med få kända mineraltillgångar. Detta visar en ny studie av världens alla länder, inom ramen för FN-Universitetets (UNU) World Institute for Development Economics Research (WIDER) initiativ Extractives for Development.

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Nordic Steel & Mining Review: Iron Ore Review, 2017

Article by Anton Löf & Magnus Ericsson in Nordic Steel & Mining Review.

Iron ore prices have held up surprisingly well in 2017. The strong US dollar in early 2017 helped many miners operating in countries with weaker currencies to additional income. Producers in the high-quality end of the iron ore market further benefitted from large and growing premium paid for these products.

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Global metal market – is there a light at the end of the tunnel?

Article by Magnus Ericsson, Anton Löf & Olof Löf in World of Mining – Surface & Underground 69 (2017) No. 1.

Finally there is light in the end of the tunnel! Analysis of a number of indicators points towards a turn around in metals market during 2017 after several difficult years:

  • metal prices,
  • equipment orders,
  • financial markets,
  • exploration expenditure.

The past years certainly were disastrous in terms of the depth of the fall, but it must not be forgotten that the downturn started from an extreme high whether in 2011 or earlier. Metal prices in index form have indeed fallen by around 50 % between 2011 and 2016, but the index is still 100 % above the levels during the ten years from 1995 to 2004. The copper price on the 30th of December 2016 was 5500 USD/t, an increase from the 1st of January by 18 %. But this is still down 44 % from the beginning of 2011. But if we put today’s price into a century long perspective it is obvious that it is on a level clearly higher than the average over the entire  20th century (Figure 1). With price graphs anything can be proved it is just a matter of choosing the right time period!

The past years have not been as bad as they have been portrayed. Demand has been there all the time, production volumes have not dropped dramatically if at all. The so called ”crises” is to a large extent an over-supply issue not a drop in demand. The main driving forces behind the super cycle boom: population growth, urbanisation and improved standard of living all over the world are still craving for more metals.

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